Why Time has a Direction

The direction of time is the direction of contingent counterfactual dependence and hence causation.

Why we cannot change the past

Presented at the “Free Will Physics and Metaphysics” conference. Rutgers University, May 12th,2022

The Simple Theory of Counterfactuals

The account of counterfactuals that most philosophers endorse is wrong. The correct theory is Johanthan Bennett’s Simple Theory.

The Computational Theory of the Laws of Nature

An alternative to the Best System Account of Laws based upon Algorithmic Information Theory.

Blackburn, Truth and other Hot Topics

Blackburn and Fodor fail to appreciate the threat incommensurability poses to our belief in objective truth.

The Temporal Asymmetry of Counterfactuals

Lewis’s account of the temporal asymmetry of counterfactuals fails and is inconsistent with this own analysis of counterfactuals. A different account of counterfactuals explains the asymmetry.

Counterfactuals-The Short Course

A short primer on counterfactuals and the difference between Jonathan Bennett’s “Simple Theory” and David Lewis’s “miracles” account.


Causation is defined as a relation between facts: C causes E if and only if C and E are nomologically independent facts and C is a necessary part of a nomologically sufficient condition for E. The analysis is applied to problems of overdetermination, preemption, trumping, intransitivity, switching, and double prevention. Preventing and allowing are defined and distinguished from causing. The analysis explains the direction of causation in terms of the logical form of dynamic laws. Even in a universe that is deterministic in both temporal directions, not every fact must have a cause and present facts may have no future causes.